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Membrane and Cytosol

 

Cell Membrane: Every cell is enclosed in a membrane. The membrane is a double layer of lipids (lipid bilayer) but is made quite complex by the presence of numerous proteins that are important to cell activity. These proteins include receptors, pores, and enzymes. The membrane is responsible for the controlled entry and exit of ions like sodium (Na) potassium (K), calcium (Ca++).

Cytosol: The cytosol (cytoplasm) is the "soup" within which all the other cell organelles reside and where most of the cellular metabolism occurs. Though mostly water, the cytosol is full of proteins that control cell metabolism including signal transduction pathways, glycolysis, intracellular receptors, and transcription factors.